The Qaraqalpaq Language
The Qaraqalpaq language includes additional letters compared to Russian.
The thirty or more different Turkic languages can be classified into four main geographical groups: south-western or Oghuz, north-western or
Qipchaq, south eastern or Uighur-Chaghatay, and north-eastern or Siberian. The Chuvash language of the Volga is classified in its own separate
group. The Qaraqalpaq language belongs to the north-western group, the Qipchaq family of languages. It sits alongside Noghay, Qazaq, Kalmuk,
Tatar, Bashkir, Kyrgyz, and Altai. The Uzbek language belongs to the separate south-eastern or Uighur-Chaghatay group.
The Qipchaq languages can be divided in turn into three geographical sub-groups: Ponto-Caspian, Uralian and Aralo-Caspian. The latter includes
Qaraqalpaq, Qazaq, Kyrgyz, and Noghay.
The Qaraqalpaq language is closest to Qazaq. There is of course a close historical relationship between the Qaraqalpaqs and the Qazaqs of the
Lesser Horde. In the early 18th century the Lower Qaraqalpaqs were actually ruled by a Qazaq Khan.
As with the other Islamic Turkic peoples, the Qaraqalpaqs traditionally used Arabic script as a writing system and continued with this until
about 1928. In 1925 the Russians introduced a Latin alphabet, based on the standard Latin alphabet plus a few extra letters and diacritics. This
was used until 1940, after which there was a rapid shift to Cyrillic script. As no unified Cyrillic alphabet existed for all of the Russian
Central Asian States each national language made its own adaptations. The Qaraqalpaq alphabet had several additional letters to the normal Cyrillic
alphabet. The letters ә, ң, ө, ў and ү were introduced in 1945. A new Qaraqalpaq Latin alphabet was introduced
in February 1994 and a major revision of it took place in 1995 bringing it closer to the new Uzbek Latin alphabet. To overcome problems in
typography the Qaraqalpaqs dealt with certain letters by creating shortcuts to them - inserting an apostrophe after certain normal vowels or
consonants and thus avoiding the use of diacritics. For example the vowel ө, which sounds like the German ö became o'.
This new alphabet offers a reasonably simple and practical transliteration system for the Anglicizing of Qaraqalpaq.
All of the letters are to be found on a standard QWERTY keyboard with the exception of the dotless i which is the Cyrillic ы and this
can be found under insert symbol in MS Word. This system is now widely used by educated Qaraqalpaqs, especially on the internet, and has
been employed by both No'kis museums. We use it consistently for all Qaraqalpaq words throughout this website. This is also fairly close
to the original 1971 GOST standard - for reference click here. For comparison we also give a more scientific Latin
equivalent based on the internationally recognized standard ISO-9.
Note that the letters â, ô, ö, ÷, and ù do not appear in genuine Qaraqalpaq words. For a review of the 1995 Latin system see Dospanov, 2004.
Matters were complicated on 8 October 2009 when the Joqarg'ı Ken'es introduced a revised and more cumbersome Latin alphabet. This
is generally the same as the 1995 alphabet with five main exceptions: the dotless i is replaced by i'; o, o' and e at the start of Qaraqalpaq words are
replaced by wo, wo' and ye (which is how they are generally pronounced); and in loan words the rarely occurring ts is replaced by c. To complicate
matters, traditional Qaraqalpaq words are treated differently from loan words (for example, esik should now become yesik
but ekonomika does not change).
So far this new alphabet has been largely ignored by the Qaraqalpaqs themselves and has not even been adopted by the few local newspapers
that are published in the Latin alphabet. We have therefore decided against adopting this new system at this early stage on the basis that
a language is defined by what its speakers use in practice rather than by a diktat proscribed by politicians that most educated Qaraqalpaqs
are still largely unaware of.
Despite the move towards the use of the Latin script, the majority of Qaraqalpaq scholarly works are still written in Cyrillic. Much of the
early research on Qaraqalpaq culture was conducted by Russian scholars and many Qaraqalpaq terms have passed into general usage in a
Romanized version of the Russian Cyrillic word. An example would be saukele instead of the Qaraqalpaq spelling sa'wkele. We have
therefore included a column showing the Russian Cyrillic spellings of Qaraqalpaq words.
The word order is generally subject - object - verb. Qaraqalpaq is agglutinative, with grammatical functions indicated by adding various suffixes
to a fixed stem.
Like all Turkic languages, Qaraqalpaq has two classes of vowels: the front vowels, pronounced at the front of the mouth such as e, i, o' and u',
and the back vowels, pronounced at the back of the mouth such as a, ı, o, u. Traditional Turkic words must obey the rule of vowel harmony,
the vowels of the suffixes harmonising with the vowels of the noun or verb stem. Words are normally stressed on the final syllable.
To give a better appreciation of Qaraqalpaq pronunciation we have added lists of words with sound files attached to them at the end of most of the
pages relating to costume and yurts. We also provide a Qaraqalpaq Phrase Book with the words spoken by a Qaraqalpaq.
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See Glossary for a list of Qaraqalpaq words.