Contents

Introduction
General Glossary
Place Names
Tribal Names and Terms
Qaraqalpaq (and Russian) Transliteration Systems
Notes




Qaraqalpaq dictionary
A Qaraqalpaq-English Dictionary

Introduction

This glossary has been developed for general readers who are interested in the Qaraqalpaq people and their history and culture, not for specialists in linguistics or phonetics.

Ideally we would like to have an English transliteration of every Qaraqalpaq word, based solely on the English alphabet and producing words that phonetically sound close to their Qaraqalpaq equivalents. Unfortunately many Qaraqalpaq words do not easily convert in this way.

Over the years various standardized systems have been established in order to transliterate Cyrillic letters into a Latin or Romanized equivalent, ranging from the the UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names to the US American Library Association and Library of Congress and the International Standards Organisation. The advantage of the latter ISO-9 standard, published in 1995, is that it is based on the system of scientific transliteration used in linguistics and is also designed to be reversible, so that the original Cyrillic word can be faithfully re-composed from its transliteration. However ISO-9 includes many special characters that are not part of the English alphabet and which therefore include various diacritics, the marks that distinguish different sounding forms of the same letter.

This raises the complex issue of unicodes, the decimal or hexadecimal codes used by internet browsers to support the letters of various languages. The American standard uses obscure characters like h, o and u combined with a superdot, which can only be written with combination codes and are not supported on certain browsers.

The whole purpose of an Anglicized transliteration is convenience, such as the ability to use an English keyboard without the constant need to insert special symbols - otherwise one might as well use the original Qaraqalpaq word! The only standard that excludes diacritics is the 1971 Soviet system developed by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the USSR and known as GOST. Unfortunately it is primarily designed for the Russian language rather than Turkic languages like Qaraqalpaq and contains no equivalents for eight Qaraqalpaq letters. Obviously the Qaraqalpaq people themselves played no part in the design or adoption of this or any of the other standard transliteration systems.

Between 1925 and 1940 the Qaraqalpaqs used a Latin alphabet introduced by the Russians. This was based on the standard Latin alphabet with a few extra letters and diacritics. From 1940 onwards there was a rapid shift to Cyrillic scripts. As no unified Cyrillic alphabet existed for all of the Russian Central Asian States each language made its own adaptations. The Qaraqalpaq alphabet had 6 additional letters to the normal Cyrillic alphabet. The letters ә, ң, ө, ў and ү were introduced in 1945. A Qaraqalpaq Latin alphabet was introduced in February 1994 and a major revision of it took place in 1995 bringing it closer to the new Uzbek Latin alphabet. To overcome problems in typography the Qaraqalpaqs dealt with certain letters by creating shortcuts to them - inserting an apostrophe after certain normal vowels or consonants and thus avoiding the use of diacritics. For example the vowel ө, which sounds like the German ö became o'.

This new alphabet offers a reasonably simple and practical transliteration system for the Anglicizing of Qaraqalpaq. All of the letters are to be found on a standard QWERTY keyboard with the exception of the dotless i which is the Cyrillic ы and this can be found under insert symbol in MS Word. This system is now widely used by educated Qaraqalpaqs, especially on the internet, and has been employed by both No'kis museums. We use it consistently for all Qaraqalpaq words throughout this website. This is also fairly close to the original 1971 GOST standard - for reference click here. For comparison we also give a more scientific Latin equivalent based on the internationally recognized standard ISO-9.

Note that the letters , , , , and do not appear in genuine Qaraqalpaq words. For a review of the 1995 Latin system see Dospanov, 2004.

Matters were complicated on 8 October 2009 when the Joqarg'ı Ken'es introduced a revised and more cumbersome Latin alphabet. This is generally the same as the 1995 alphabet with five main exceptions: the dotless i is replaced by i'; o, o' and e at the start of Qaraqalpaq words are replaced by wo, wo' and ye (which is how they are generally pronounced); and in loan words the rarely occurring ts is replaced by c. To complicate matters, traditional Qaraqalpaq words are treated differently from loan words (for example, esik should now become yesik but ekonomika does not change).

So far this new alphabet has been largely ignored by the Qaraqalpaqs themselves and has not even been adopted by the few local newspapers that are published in the Latin alphabet. We have therefore decided against adopting this new system at this early stage on the basis that a language is defined by what its speakers use in practice rather than by a diktat proscribed by politicians that most educated Qaraqalpaqs are still largely unaware of.

Despite the move towards the use of the Latin script, the majority of Qaraqalpaq scholarly works are still written in Cyrillic. Much of the early research on Qaraqalpaq culture was conducted by Russian scholars and many Qaraqalpaq terms have passed into general usage in a Romanized version of the Russian Cyrillic word. An example would be saukele instead of the Qaraqalpaq spelling sa'wkele. We have therefore included a column showing the Russian Cyrillic spellings of Qaraqalpaq words.

Please note that this page is still in the development stage and that many new words will be progressively added over the coming months and years.


General Glossary

Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
1995
Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
ISO-9
Qaraqalpaq
Cyrillic
   Russian   
Romanized
GOST 1971
   Russian   
Cyrillic
Meaning
ag'ashaġašағашagashагашtree, wood
alaqaalaķaалақаalakaалакаsections of the sa'wkele tail made from Bukharan embroidery
alashaalašaалашаalashaалашаstriped cloth
aldıaldyалдыaldyалдыface or front
aldıng'ı u'zikaldynġy ùzikалдынғы үзикaldyngy uzikалдынгы үзикfront felt of yurt roof
aqаķақakакwhite
aq sog'ıtaķ soġytақ соғытak sogytак согытwillow, Salix alba L.
aqsaqalaķsaķalақсақалaksakalаксакалold man, elder. Literally 'white beard'
aq talaķ talақ талak talак талwillow, Salix oxica Dode
aq terekaķ terekақ терекak terekак терекpoplar, Populus alba pyramidalis
arbaarbaарбаarbaарбаtwo-wheeled wooden donkey or bullock cart
a'rebekãrebekәребекarebekаребекwoman's nose ornament, generally a ring
arshaaršaаршаarshaаршаRussian metal trunk made of tinplate and often decorated.
artqı u'zikartķy uzikартқы үзикartky uzikарткы үзикrear felt of yurt roof
asqabaqasķabaķасқабақaskabakаскабакpumpkin, often dried out and used as a water container
asxanaashanaасханаaskhanaасханаkitchen
at ayılat ajylат айылat ajylат айылhorse's belly band
atlıatlyатлыatlyатлыhorseman, rider
awılaŭylаўылaulаулhamlet or small village.
ayaq bawaâķ baŭаяқ баўajak bauаяк бауbrightly coloured woollen tassels hung from the shan'araq of the yurt
aydıllıajdyllyайдыллыajdyllyайдыллыvery popular pattern of Russian machine printed cotton, botehs on a red background
azatazatазатazatазатfree
baqabaķaбақаbakaбакаfrog
baqanbaķanбақанbakanбаканforked pole used to erect the yurt
baqsıbaķsyбақсыbaksyбаксы1. narrator, poet 2. sorcerer 3. wise person
basbasбасbasбасhead
basqurbasķurбасқурbaskurбаскур head band or main tent band
baw shuwbaŭ šuŭбаў шуўbau shuбау шуcommon term for all types of yurt bands. Can also mean the set of bands which make up part of the dowry
baybajбайbajбайwealthy man; landowner
baypaqbajpaķбайпақbajpakбайпакmen's felt stockings
bayrambajramбайрамbajramбайрамholiday
belbewbelbeŭбелбеўbelbeuбелбеуcloth or kerchief used as a man's belt
beljipbelžipбелжипbelzhipбелжипbel - waist, jip - thread, lace
bes kiyimbes kijimбес кийимbes kijimбес кийимfive items of clothing, part of the girl's dowry
beshpentbešpentбешпентbeshpentбешпентsleeveless waistcoat
betbetбетbetбетface
bet asharbet ašarбет ашарbet asharбет ашарface revealing ceremony
bilezikbilezikбилезикbilezikбилезикbracelet
bo'genekbôgenekбөгенекbogenekбогенекsplayed laths on the roofwheel of the yurt
bog'jamaboġžamaбоғжамаbogzhamaбогжамаa plain qarshın-like bag or a flat cotton storage bag
bosag'abosaġaбосағаbosagaбосагаthreshold
boydasıbojdasyбойдасыbojdasyбойдасыstrings of beads attached to the earguards of the sa'wkele, hanging like a necklace
boyaq ko'ylekboâķ kôylekбояқ көйлекbojak koylekбояк койлекliterally 'dyed dress' - another term for a ko'k koylek
boyrabojraбойраbojraбойраcane mat
bo'zbôzбөзbozбозrough homemade cloth
da'standãstanдәстанdastanдастанpoem, epos
dastıqdastyķдастықdastykдастыкlong pillow
dasturqandasturķanдастурқанdasturkanдастурканtablecloth
digirmandigirmanдигирманdigirmanдигирманmill
digirman tasdigirman tasдигирман тасdigirman tasдигирман тасmillstone, grindstone
dizbedizbeдизбеdizbeдизбеnarrow tapes used to bind together the qanats of the yurt kerege
du'ka'ndùkãnдүкәнdukanдуканsmall shop
duwashıqduŭašyķдуўашықduashykдүашыкamulet, protection
eltiri toneltiri tonелтири тонeltiri tonелтири тонman's coat made of Astrakhan
ergenekergenekергенекergenekергенекdoor of a yurt
erik gu'lerik gùlерик гүлerik gulерик гулapricot flower
esikqasesikķasесикқасesikkasесиккасdecorative small rectangular all-pile weaving placed above the door on the inside of the yurt
etiketikетикetikетикknee length leather boots
g'arg'aġarġaғарғаgargaгаргаcrow
g'arg'a tırnaqġarġa tyrnaķғарға тырнақgarga tyrnakгарга тырнакcrow's claw
g'arg'a tuyaqġarġa tuâķғарға туяқgarga tuyakгарга туякcrow's foot
g'awasha gu'lġaŭaša gùlғаўаша гүлgauasha gulгауаша гулcotton flower
g'az moyınġaz mojynғаз мойынgaz mojynгаз мойынgoose's neck - motif frquently found on aq kiymeshek
gewishgeŭišгеўишgeuishгеуишgaloshes
gu'lgùlгүлgulгулflower
gu'ldirewishgùldireŭišгүлдиреўишguldireuishгулдиреуишdistinctive arrow-shaped pieces of wood in the shan'araq of the yurt
ha'kimhãkimҳәкимkhakimхакимlocal district executive
halaqahalaķaҳалақаkhalakaхалакаplait cover attached to the sa'wkele
ha'wlihãŭliҳәўлиkhauliхаулиfarmstead
ha'ykelh˛ãjkelҳәйкелkhajkelхайкелwoman's chest adornment
ilmeilmeилмеilmeилмеtype of chain-stitch
ishik tonišik tonишик тонishik tonишик тонfur coat
ishkiiškiишкиishkiишкиinternal
iyinbawijinbaŭийинбаўijinbauийинбаүiyin - shoulder, baw - tape,
iytijtийтijtийтdog
iyt tabanijt tabanийт табанijt tabanийт табанfootprint of dog
ılaq oyınylaķ ojynылақ ойынylak ojynылак ойынgame played on horseback using the headless carcass of a goat
ırg'aqyrġaķырғақyrgakыргакhook or zigzag motif
ıshtanyštanыштанyshtanыштанsummer trousers
jag'ažaġaжағаzhagaжагаcollar
janbawžanbaŭжанбаўzhanbauжанбауdecorative pair of tent bands, suspended like a garland either inside or outside the yurt
janewutžaneŭutжанеўутzhaneutжанеутforest willow, Salix songarica Anderss.
jarg'ı tisžarġy tisжарғы тисzhargy tisжаргы тисteeth of a wood saw
jawırınshažaŭyrynšaжаўырыншаzhauyrynshaжауырыншаprotective triangular amulet sewn on the back of clothing
jayžajжайzhajжай1. house, place to stay. 2. smooth, peaceful
jazlawžazlaŭжазлаўzhazlauжазлауsummer quarters
jegdežegdeжегдеzhegdeжегдеwoman's khalat-like covering worn over the head.
jekenžekenжекенzhekenжекенbulrush used for making rope, aprons, and mats
jen'sežeņseжеңсеzhengseженсеembroidered cuff
jen'ushžeņušжеңушzhengushженушembroidered sleeve guard
jez shiyžez šijжез шийzhez shiyжез шийshiy screen decorated with a geometric motif by winding coloured wool around each stem
jıg'ažyġaжығаzhygaжыгаprominent gilded and bejewelled round metal plate on the front of the sa'wkele
jipekžipekжипекzhipekжипекsilk
jiyekžijekжийекzhijekжийекsilk edging with the appearance of braid, mainly used to decorate clothing.
joqarg'ı ken'esžoķarġy keņesжоқарғы кеңесzhokargy kenesжокаргы кенесSupreme Council, highest representative legislative body in Qaraqalpaqstan
josažosaжосаzhosaжосаred clay used to stain the kerege of the yurt
ju'kžùкжүкzhukжукpile of bedding stacked on top of the sandıq and qarshın.
jumalaq mu'yizžumalaķ mùjizжумалақ мүйизzhumalaq mujizжумалак муйизtwisted or round horns motif
jumalaq tu'ymežumalaķ tùjmeжумалақ түймеzhumalaq tujmeжумалак түймеegg-shaped or spherical hollow silver button
ju'nžùnжүнzhunжунwool
jurtžurtжуртzhurtжурт1. place where the yurt is erected. 2. motherland, native country
ka'ma'rkãmãrкәмәрkamarкамарbelt, girdle
kempir jegdekempir žegdeкемпир жегдеkempir zhegdeкемпир жегдеsimple form of aq jegde for an old lady
kendırkendyrкендырkendyrкендырApocynum Sibericum Jacquin used for making the textile known as torka
ken'eskeņesкеңесkenesкенесcouncil
keregekeregeкерегеkeregeкерегеlattice wall of the yurt
kerege ko'zkerege kôzкереге көзkerege kozкереге козdiamond shapes formed by opening the yurt lattice. Also an embroidery pattern.
kergikergiкергиkergiкергиkit-bag
kesteli ko'ylekkesteli kôylekкестели көйлекkesteli koylekкестели көйлекliterally 'embroidered dress' - another name for a ko'k ko'ylek
kiymeshekkijmešekкиймешекkijmeshekкиймешекwoman's garment covering the head and chest
ko'kkôkкөкkokкокblue
ko'k ko'ylekkôk kôylekкөк көйлекkok koylekкок койлек literally blue dress, heavily embroidered and used as bridal wear
kolxozkolhozколхозkolkhozколхозa collective farm
ko'mpeykômpejкөмпейkompejкомпейman's quilted sleeveless winter camisole
ko'rpekôrpeкөрпеkorpeкорпеblanket, quilt
ko'rpeshekôrpešeкөрпешеkorpesheкорпешеmat
ko'rshikkôpšikкөршикkopshikкоршикpillow, cushion
ko'zkôzкөзkozкозeye
ko'zlikkôzlikкөзликkozlikкозликblinkers (for an animal)
ko'ylekkôylekкөйлекkoylekкойлекdress
lo'lilarlôlilarлөлиларlolilarлолиларgypsy
ma'delimãdeliмәделиmadeliмаделиthin silk plaid shawl
ma'ka'n ken'esmãkãn keņesмәкән кеңесmakan kenesмакан кенесneighbourhood council
malmalмалmalмалlivestock
man'layshamaņlajšaмаңлайшаmanlayshaманлайшаlintel of yurt door, from 'manlay', forehead.
marjanmaržanмаржанmarzhanмаржанcoral
ma'rdika'rmãrdikãrмәрдикәрmardikarмардикарday worker, hireling
merekemerekeмерекеmerekeмерекеrelating to customs and rituals (e.g. burial, commemorative feast)
mısmysмысmysмысcopper
mıs qumg'anmys ķumġanмыс қумғанmys kumganмыс кумганcopper jug
morımoryморыmoryморыstove, oven
murındıq enemuryndyķ eneмурындық енеmuryndyk eneмурындык енеproxy mother who acts as mentor to the bride
mu'yizmùjizмүйизmujizмуйизhorns
nag'ısnaġysнағысnagysнагысornament or pattern
nawrıznaŭryzнаўрызnauryzнаўрызNew Year
nawrız go'jenaŭryz gôžeнаўрыз гөжеnauryz gozheнаўрыз гожеNew Year soup made from 7-12 ingredients
nekenekeнекеnekeнекеbetrothal, engagement
neke qıyıwneke ķyjyŭнеке қыйыўneke kyjyuнеке кыйыуofficial part of wedding ceremony involving a mullah
o'mır darag'ıômyr daraġynlarөмыр дарағыomyr daragyомыр дарагыtree of life
omırtqaomyrtķaомыртқаomyrtkaомырткаvertebrae, spine
on ekion ekiон екиon ekiон еки12; twelve
on' jaqoņ žaķоң жақong zhakонг жакthe right side, referring to the men's side of the yurt
o'n'irmonshaqôņirmonšaķөңирмоншақongirmonshakонгирмоншакsilver breast adornment for girls in the form of a half-sphere with pendants from the lower edge.
o'n'irsheôņiršeөңиршеongirsheонгиршеgirls cloth breastplate; usually embroidered and with silver coins and platelets sewn on.
oqоқokокbullet
oramaloramalорамалoramalорамалshawl
o'rmekôrmekөрмекormekормекa simple and narrow ground loom with only one heddle and operated with a shed stick
orta qaraorta ķaraорта қараorta karaорта қараembroidered central section of a qızıl kiymeshek, literally 'middle black'
orta turg'ınlarorta turġynlarорта турғынларorta turgynlarорта тургынларmiddle-class
oshaqošaķошақoshakошакfireplace, hearth
otawotaŭотаўotauотауa yurt for newly weds
o'te baylarôte bajlarөте байларote bajlarоте байларvery wealthy
palgerpalgerпалгерpalgerпалгерwooden compasses used in yurtmaking
papaqpapaķпапақpapakпапакAstrakhan cap
pashshayı ko'ylekpaššajy kôylekпашшайы көйлекpashshajy koylekпашшайы койлекdress made of a silk and cotton mix from Khivan or Bukharan ikat
pirpirпирpirпир"spirit guide" of a guild or group of craftsmen
piruzapiruzaпирузаpiruzaпирузаthe semi-precious stone turquoise
piskekpiskekпискекpiskekпискекbeater part of a churn used for making butter or cream
postınpostynпостынpostynпостынsheepskin coat
pul qaltapul ķaltaпул қалтаpul kaltaпул калтаmoney bag
qabaqķabaķқабақkabakкабакpumpkin, often dried out and used as a water container
qa'deķãdeқәдеkadeкадеritual gifts
qalaķalaқалаkalaкалаa town. In the past an enclosure of yurts fortified by earthen ramparts.
qa'lemķãlemқәлемkalemкалемpencil
qalın'ķalyņқалыңkalyngкалынbride price
qam ko'kķam kôkқам көкkam kokкам кокstrips of raw hide, usually camel, used to link the sag'anaq of the yurt
qamısķamysқамысkamysкамысreed
qamıtķamytқамытkamysкамытhorse collar
qamshıķamšyқамшыkamshyкамшыlash, whip
qanatķanatқанатkanatканатsection of yurt lattice, literally 'wing'
qaraķaraқараkaraкараblack
qara talķara talқара талkara talкара талwillow, Salix australior
qara u'yķara ùjқара үйkara ujкара уйyurt, literally black house
qarag'ayķaraġajқарағайkaragajкарагайpine, Pinus sylvestris L.
QaraqalpaqĶaraķalpaķҚарақалпақKarakalpakКаракалпакKarakalpak
qarıstırıwķarystyryŭқарыстырыўkarystyryuкарыстырыуcrossing
qarshınķaršynқаршынkarshynкаршын a long box-shaped bag with a pile-woven face used to store clothing.
qarsı mu'yizķarsy mùjizқарсы мүйизkarsy mujizкарсы муйизopposing horns
qasķasқасkasкасeyebrow
qa'wıp tigisķãŭyp tigisқаўып тигисkauyp tigisкауып тигисa type of satin-stitch
qayın'ķajyņқайыңkajynкайынbirch, betula pendula Roth.
qayıqķajyķқайықkajykкайыкsmall boat used on the rivers of the delta
qayısķajysқайысkajysкайысnarrow belt, generally of leather
qazanķazanқазанkazanказанcauldron, kettle
qılıshķylyšқылышkylyshкылышsword; tamg'a of Man'g'ıts
qılqaķylķaқылқаkylkaкылкаwinter coat of tanned sheep's pelts worn with the fleece side in
qılshıqķylšyķқылшықkylshykкылшыкlong, strong goat hair used for the warp of qarshıns
qınapķynapқынапkynapкынапsheath for a knife
qırag'ıķyraġyқырағыkyragyкырагыvigilant, watchful
qıranķyranқыранkyranкыранdecorative metal platelets on the earguards of the sa'wkele
qırg'ıyķyrġyjқырғыйkyrgyjкыргыйhawk
Qırq QızĶyrķ ĶyzҚырқ ҚызKyrk KyzКырк КызForty Girls - famous Qaraqalpaq epic poem
qıslawķyslaŭқыслаўkyslauкыслауwinter quarters
qızılķyzylқызылkyzylкызылred
qızquwķyzķuŭқызқуўkyzkuuкызкууgame played at festivals involving tagging a running girl
qoltıqsha mu'yizķoltyķša mùjizқолтықша мүйизkoltyksha mujizколтыкша муйизarmpit horns
qoraķoraқораkoraкораcorral for cattle
qoralı gu'lķoraly gùlқоралы гүлkoraly gulкоралы гулfenced flower. A pattern used on the orta qara of a qızıl kiymeshek
qorjınķoržynқоржинkorzhynкоржинdonkey bag
qos mu'yizķos mùjisқос мүизkoz muyizкос муизdouble horns
qos nag'ısķos naġysқос нағысkoz nagysкос нагысdouble pattern
qoshqar mu'yizķošķar mùjisқошқар мүизkoshkar muyizкошкар муизram's horns design common on shiyo'n'ir
qoy terisiķoj terisiқой терисиkoj terisiкой терисиsheepskin
qozıķozyқозыkozyкозыlamb
qumķumқумkumкум1. sand, desert. 2. jug
qumırısqa belķumyrysķa belқумырысқа белkumyryska belкумырыска белwaist of an ant
qurķurқурkurкурtent band
qurashķurašқурашkurashкурашlarge sheepskin cap
qurbaqaķurbaķaқурбақаkurbakaкурбакаfrog
quwırshaq awızķuŭyršaķ aŭyzқуўыршақ аўызkuyrshak auyzкуыршак аузdoll's mouth. A motif found on qızıl kiymesheks
quyrıqķujryķқуйрықkujrykкуйрыкtail
risa'lerisãleрисәлеrisaleрисалеregulations pertaining to a guild of craftsmen
sabayaqsabaâķсабаяқsabajakсабаякa small table-like stand located in the female side of the yurt.
sag'anaqsaġanaķсағанақsaganakсаганақpoles used to make the qanats of the yurt kerege
sandıqsandyķсандықsandykсандыкa wooden storage chest for the yurt, usually decorated with paintings or carvings
sawıt nag'ıssaŭyt naġysсаўыт нағысsauyt nagysсауыт нагысembroidery pattern used on the ko'k ko'ylek said to resemble chain-mail
sa'wkelesãŭkeleсәўкелеsaukeleсаукелеbridal headdress
segizsegizсегизsegizсегизeight
sen'sen'seņseņсеңсеңsengsengсенгсенгlambskin
sha'kirtšãkirtшәкиртshakirtшакиртapprentice
shalšalшалshalшалwool
shalbaršalbarшалбарshalbarшалбарwinter trousers
shan'araqšaņaraķшаңарақshangarakшангаракroof wheel of the yurt
shanashšanašшанашshanashшанашbag for storing dried goods
shanıshqıšanyšķyшанышқыshanyshkyшанышкыfish spear; tamg'a of Mu'yten tribe
shapanšapanшапанshapanшапанcoat
shaqshašaķšaшақшаshakshaшакшаtobacco box made of horn
shartu'ymešartùjmeшартүймеshartujmeшартуймеwoman's breast ornament worn instead of a ha'ykel
shatırashšatyrašшатырашshatyrashшатырашchequerboard pattern, net
shayanšajanшайанshajanшайанscorpion
shayıšajyшайыshajyшайыsilk
shayqaltašajķaltaшайқалтаshajkaltaшайкалтаbag for leaf tea, usually embroidered
shekpenšekpenшекпенshekpenшекпенman's long sleeved overcoat of home-made cloth from camel's wool shal
shep jaqšep žaķшеп жақshep zhakшеп жакthe left side, referring to the women's side of the yurt
shettegi qarašettegi ķaraшеттеги қараshettegi karaшеттеги караthe black ushıga edge of the qızıl kiymeshek aldı, usually embroidered
shigiršigirшигирchigirчигирwater-lifting device, known as chigir in other parts of Central Asia
shımıldıqšymyldyķшымылдықshymyldykшымылдыкliterally the fiances curtain, used to screen the young married couple inside the yurt
shınıqapšynyķapшынықапshynykapшыныкпcase for teapot and cup
shıptašyptaшыптаshyptaшыптаmat woven from bulrushes
shırıs tigisšyrys tigisшырыс тигисshyrys tigisшырыс тигисcross-stitch
shirkatširkatширкатchirkatчиркатfarm co-operative
shiyšijшийshijшийSteppe grass, Lasiagrotis Splendens
shiylawıshšijlaŭyšшийлаўышshijlauyshшийлауышembroidery motif in the form of a wood-plane
shiy o'n'iršij ôņirший өңирshij ongirший онгирvertical ornamented strips hung externally on either side of the yurt door
shiy qayıwšij ķajyŭший қайыўshiy kayuший каюvertical strip edging the reed door of the yurt
sho'girmešôgirmeшөгирмеshogirmeшогирмеlarge sheepskin cap
shubal nag'ısšubal naġysшубал нағысshubal nagysшубал нагысone of the patterns found on the orta qara of qızıl kiymesheks
sımsymсымsymсымwinter trousers
sırg'asyrġaсырғаsyrgaсыргаearring
sırtqı beldewsyrtķy beldeŭсыртқы белдеўsyrtky beldeuсырткы белдеуouter waist belt that was used in the past over the shiy screen of the yurt
sog'ıtsoġytсоғытsogytсогытwillow, see aq sog'ıt
so'k shanashsôk šanašсөк шанашsok shanashсок шанашbag for fried millet
solaqsolaķсолақsolakсолакpart of a wooden cart (arba); embroidery motif
sol jaqsol žaķсол жақsol zhakсол жакanother term for the left side of the yurt
sovxozsovhozсовхозsovkhozсовхозa collective farm, managed by the State
suwag'arsuŭaġarсуўағарsuuagarсууагарlower part of reed door of yurt
tamtamтамtamтамsingle storey flat-roofed house, traditionally built of mud bricks but now often of cement
tamg'atamġaтамғаtamgaтамгаtribal marking or symbol, possibly once used for branding livestock
tandırtandyrтандырtandyrтандырclay oven for baking nan bread
taqtaķтақtakтакodd
taqıyataķiâтақияtakhijaтахияskullcap
taraqtaraķтарақtarakтаракcomb
tarı qaltatary ķaltaтары қалтаtary kaltaтары калтаbag for dried millet
tay tuyaqtaj tuâķтай туяқtaj tujakтай туякfoal's foot
tayınshaqtajynšaķтайыншақtajynshakтайыншакtanned pelt of a foal
tayshaxıtajšahyтайшахыtajshakhyтайшахыsimple undecorated coat made from a foal's pelt and worn in the past by Qaraqalpaq men
telpektelpekтелпекtelpekтелпекcap
temeki qaltatemeki ķaltaтемеки қалтаtemeki kaltaтемеки калтаtobacco bag
terekterekтерекterekтерекpoplar
teriteriтериteriтериskin, hide, pelt
teris qayıwteris ķajyŭтерис қайыўteris kajyuтерис кайыуreverse, opposite stitch
teztezтезtezтезequipment used in yurtmaking for bending the uwıqs
tigistigisтигисtigisтигисstitch
tikeshtikešтикешtikeshтикешtool with wooden handle and metal pins used to stamp patterns onto nan bread
tilenshilartilenšilarтиленшиларtilenshilarтиленшиларbeggar, destitute
to'beliktôbelikтөбеликtobelikтобеликround bejewelled gilded headdress
tog'ıztoġyzтоғызtogyzтогызnine
tontonтонtonтонgeneral term for a fur-lined coat. Sometimes this word is used instead of postın
toqalaq mu'yiztoķalaķ mùjizтоқалақ мүйизtokalak muyizтокалак муизmotif of docked horns or missing horn
to'rtôrтөрtorторthe place of honour for guests inside the yurt, opposite the entrance
torqatorķaторқаtorkaторкаtextile woven from Apocynum Sibericum Jacquin known as qızıl kendır to the Qaraqalpaqs
toytojтойtojтойfestival, feast
tu'bittŭbitтүбитtubitтубитdown or soft wool from the neck and underbelly of goat or other animal
tulg'atulġaтулғаtulgaтулгаside struts of the yurt door
tumaqtumaķтумақtumakтумакtall domed cap covered with ushıga that forms the basis of the sa'wkele
tumartumarтумарtumarтумарsmall silver amuletic tube sewn onto children's clothing
tu'n'liktùņlikтүңликtunglikтунгликtop felt of the yurt covering the smokehole
tu'rmetŭrmeтүрмеturmeтурмеshawl, scarf, often of red silk
tu'ye tabantŭje tabanтүйе табанtuje tabanтуйе табанcamel's foot
tu'ymetŭjmeтүймеtujmeтуймеbutton
u'lkenùlkenүлкенulkenулкенlarge, great
ununунunунflour
u'shùšүшushушthree
ushıgaušygaушыгаushygaушыгаfelted cloth used for kiymesheks
ustaustaустаustaустаmaster, expert
uwıquŭyķуўықuykуыкroof strut of yurt
uwıqbawuŭyķbaŭуўықбаўuykbauуыкбауroof strut tapes
u'yleniw toyùjleniŭ toyүйлениў тойujleniu toyуйлениу тойwedding feast
u'yrekùjrekүйрекujrekуйрекduck
u'yshiùjšiүйшиujshiуйшиyurtmaker
xalıqları ko'ylekhalyķlary kôylekхалыклары көйлекkhalyklary koylekхалыклары койлекanother name for a ko'k ko'ylek, literally 'people's dress'
xalqahalķaхалкаkhalkaхалкаplait cover attached to the sa'wkele
zergerzergerзергерzergerзергерengraver



Place Names

Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
1995
Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
ISO-9
Qaraqalpaq
Cyrillic
Russian
Romanized
GOST 1971
   Russian   
Cyrillic
Alternative
Qaraqalpaq Names
Aqman'g'ıtAķmaņġytАқмаңғытAkmangytАкмангыт
Aq qalaAķ ķalaАқ қалаAk kalaАк кала
Ayaz qalaAâz ķalaАяз қалаAyaz kalaАяз кала
BerdaqBerdaķБердақBerdakБердак
BiruniyBirunijВирунийBirunijВирунийBeruniy
BiybazarBijbazarБийбазарBijbazarБийбазар
BostanBostanВостанBostanВостанBoston, Böston
BozatawBozataŭВозатаўBozatauВозатау
Da'wqaraDãŭķaraДәўқараDaukaraДаукара
EllikqalaEllikķalaЕлликқалаEllikkalaЕлликкала
Janbas qalaŽanbas ķalaЖанбас қалаZhanbas kalaЖанбас кала
KegeyliKegejliКегейлиKegejliКегейли
Kindik o'zekKindik ôzekКиндик өзекKindik ozekКиндик озек
Man'g'ıtMaņġytМаңғытMangytМангыт
MoynaqMojnaķМойнақMojnakМойнак
No'kisNôkisНөкисNukusНукусNökis
PorlıtawPorlytaŭПорлытаўPorlytauПорлытау
Qanlıko'lĶanlykôlҚанлыкөлKanlykolКанликол
Qarao'zekĶ'araôzekҚараөзекKaraozekКараозек
Qara qalaĶara ķalaҚара қалаKara qalaКара кала
QaratawĶarataŭҚаратаўKaratauКаратау
QazaqdaryaĶazaķdãrâҚазақдәрьяKazakhdar'jaКазахдарья
QıpshaqĶypšaķҚыпшақKypshakКыпшак
QızketkenĶyzketkenҚызкеткенKyzketkenКызкеткен
Qon'ıratĶoņyratҚоңыратKongratКонгырат
QusxanatawĶushanataŭҚусханатаўKuskhanatauКусханатау
Quyuq qalaĶujuķ ķalaҚуйуқ қалаKujuk kalaКуйук кала
QırantawĶyrantaŭҚырантаўKyrantauКырантау
Sarı-biySary-bijСары-бийSary-bijСары-бий
ShabbazŠabbazШаббазShabbazШаббаз
ShegeŠegeШегеShegeШеге
ShılpıqŠylpyķШылпықShylpykШылпық
ShımbayŠymbajШымбайChimbajЧимбайChimbay
ShomanayŠomanajШоманайShomanajШоманай
TashawızTašaŭyzТашаўызTashauyzТашауыз
TaqıyatasTaķyâtasТақыятасTakyyatasТакиятас
Taxta Ko'pirTahta KôpirТахта КөпирTakhta KopirТахта КопирTaxta Köpir
TerbenbesTerbenbesТербенбесTerbenbesТербенбес
Toqmaq AtaToķmaķ AtaТоқмақ АтаTokmak AtaТокмак Ата
To'rtku'lTôrtkùlТөрткүлTortkulТорткул
U'stirtÙstirtҮстиртUstirtУстирт
XalqabadHalķabadХалқабадKhalkabadХалкабад
XojeliHoželiХожелиKhozheliХожелиKojeli, Xojali
XorasanHorasanХорасанKhorasanХорасан



Tribal Names and Terms

,
Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
1995
Qaraqalpaq
Romanized
ISO-9
Qaraqalpaq
Cyrillic
   Russian   
Romanized
GOST 1971
   Russian   
Cyrillic
ArısArysАрысArysАрысtribal division
Urıw, U'lken urıwUryŭ, Ùlken uryŭУрыў, Үлкен урыўUru, Ulken uruУру, Улкен Уруtribe or clan, large tribe
Ko'sheKôšeКөшеKosheКоше1. small clan division 2. street
TiıreTiyreТиыреTiyreТиыреsub-division of clan
      
On To'rt UrıwOn Tôrt UryŭОн Төрт УрыўOn Tort UryuОн Торт УрыуOne of the 2 arıs of the Qaraqalpaq
Qon'ıratĶoņyratҚоңыратKonyratКоныратOne of the 2 arıs of the Qaraqalpaq
Jawıng'ırŽaŭynġyrЖаўынғырZhauyngyrЖауынгыр left wing of Qonırat arıs
Shu'llikŠùllikШүлликShullikШулликright wing of Qonırat arıs
      
Altı ataAlty ataАлты атаAlty ataАлты атаgroup of Qıpshaq clans
Jeti ko'sheŽeti kôšeЖети көшеZheti kosheЖети кошеgroup of Qıpshaq clans
TankeTankeТанкеTankeТанкеgroup of Qıtay clans
Man'g'ıt BoztayMaņġyt BoztajМаңғыт БозтайMangyt BoztajМангыт Бозтайgroup of Man'g'ıt clans
Man'g'ıt JetimtayMaņġyt ŽetimtajМаңғыт ЖетимтайMangyt Zhetim-tajМангыт Жетимтайgroup of Man'g'ıt clans
Man'g'ıt QaratayMaņġyt ĶaratajМаңғыт ҚаратайMangyt KaratajМангыт Каратайgroup of Man'g'ıt clans
Man'g'ıt SarıtayMaņġyt SarytajМаңғыт СарытайMangyt SarytajМангыт Сарытайgroup of Man'g'ıt clans
      
AbızAbyzАбызAbyzАбыз
Ag'a begliAġa begliАға беглиAgabegliАгабегли
AllaberdiAllaberdiАллабердиAllaberdiАллаберди
AnnaAnnaАннаAnnaАнна
AnnaxojaAnnahožaАннахожаAnnakhozhaАннахожа
AqayAķajАқайAkajАкай
Aq balg'alıAķ balġalyАқ; балғалыAkbalgalyАкбалгалы
Aq man'g'ıtAķ maņġytАқ маңғытAk mangytАк маңғыт
AqpıshaqAķpyšaķАқпышақAkpyshakАкпышак
AqqalaAķķalaАққалаAkkalaАккала
Aqtog'ınAķtoġynАқтоғынAktogynАктогын
AralbayAralbajАралбайAralbajАралбай
AranshıAranšyАраншыAranshyАранши
ArsarıArsaryАрсарыArsaryАрсары
ArshanAršanАршанArshanАршан
ArıqAryķАрықArykАрык
ArzıqulArzyķulАрзықулArzykulАрзыкул
AsanAsanАсанAsanАсан
AshamaylıAšamajlyАшамайлыAshamajlyАшамайлы
AytekeAjtekeАйтекеAjtekeАйтеке
AyıllıAjyllyАйыллыAjyllyАйыллы
Bag'anlıBaġanlyБағанлыBaganlyБаганлы
Balg'alıBalġalyБалғалыBalgalyБалгалы
Balg'alı QıyatBalġaly ĶyâtБалғалы ҚыятBalgaly KyjatБалгалы Кыят
BaqanlıBaķanlyБақанлыBakanlyБаканлы
BasarBasarБасарBasarБасар
BaymaqlıBajmaķlyБаймақлыBajmaklyБаймаклы
BeksıyıqBeksyjyķБексыйықBeksyjykБексыйык
BeskempirBeskempirБескемпирBeskempirБескемпир
BessarıBessaryБессарыBessaryБессары
Boqlı qıtayBoķly ķytajБоқлы қытайBokly kytajБоклы кытай
BoztayBoztajБозтайBoztajБозтай
Bu'lkildekBùlkildekБүлкилдекBulkildekБулкилдек
DobalDobalДобалDobalДобал
DombazaqDombazaķДомбазақDombazakДомбазак
EsebiyEsebijЕсебийEsebiЕсеби
EstekEstekЕстекEstekЕстек
G'ayıp qarag'anĠajyp ķaraġanҒайып қарағанGajypkaraganГайыпкараган
Ja'dikŽãdikЖәдикZhadikЖадик
Jag'altayŽaġaltajЖағалтайZhagaltajЖагалтай
Jalan'ayaqŽalaņajaķЖалаңаяқZhalangajakЖалангаяк
JamanŽamanЖаманZhamanЖаман
Jaman awılŽaman aŭylЖаман аўылZhamanauylЖаманауыл
Jaman qon'ıratŽaman ķoņyratЖаман қоңыратZhaman qonyratЖаман конырат
JamanshaŽamanšaЖаманшаZhamanshaЖаманша
JankeldiŽankeldiЖанкелдиZhankeldiЖанкелди
JanlıqŽanlyķЖанлықZhanlykЖанлык
JaparŽaparЖапарZhaparЖапар
Ja'rimbetŽãrimbetЖәримбетZharimbetЖаримбет
JekensalŽekensalЖекенсалZhekensalЖекенсал
Jel qarag'anŽel ķaraġanЖел қарағанZhelkaraganЖелкараган
JetiqaraqazaqıŽetiķaraķazaķyЖетиқарақазақыZhetikarakazakyЖетикараказакы
JuqaŽuķaЖуқаZhukaЖука
KenegesKenegesКенегесKenegesКенегес
Ken'tanawKeņtanaŭКеңтанаўKengtanauКенгтанау
KiyikshiKijikšiКийикшиKiikshiКиикши
Ko'telekKôtelekКөтелекKotelekКотелек
Ku'lki xojaqKùlki hožaķКүлки хожақKulkikozhakКулкикожак
Ma'njiwliMãnžiŭliМәнжиўлиManjiuliМанжиули
MamıqshıMamyķšyМамықшыMamykshyМамыкшы
Maylı baltaMajly baltaМайлы балтаMajlybaltaМайлыбалта
MayshıshalıMajšy šalyМайшы шалыMajshyshalyМайшышалы
Mu'ytenMùjtenМүйтенMuytenМуйтен
MınjırMynžyrМынжырMynzhyrМынжыр
No'kisNôkisНөкисNokisНокис
Nur balg'alıNur balġalyНур балғалыNurbalgalyНурбалгалы
O'mirÔmirӨмирOmirОмир
OymawıtOjmaŭytОймаўытOjmautОймаут
PanqaraPanķaraПанқараPangkaraПангкара
QabasanĶabasanҚабасанKabasanКабасан
QalmaqĶalmaķҚалмақKalmakКалмак
QalqamanĶalķamanҚалқаманKalkamanКалкаман
Qa'ndekliĶãndekliҚәндеклиKandekliКандекли
Qanjıg'alıĶanžyġalyҚанжығалыKanzhygalyКанжыгалы
Qan'lıĶaņlyҚаңлыKanglyКанглы
QaraĶaraҚараKaraКара
Qara man'g'ıtĶara maņġytҚара маңғытKara mangytКара маңғыт
Qarama'njiwliĶaramãnžiŭliҚарамәнжиўлиKaramanjiuliКараманжиули
QaramoyınĶaramojynҚарамойынKaramojinКарамойын
Qara qursaqĶara ķursaķҚара қурсақKarakursakКаракурсак
QarasıyraqĶarasyjraķҚарасыйрақKarasyjrakКарасыйрак
QaratalshıĶaratalšyҚараталшыKaratalshyКараталшы
QaraxojaĶarahožaҚарахожаKarakhozhaКарахожа
QarekeĶarekeҚарекеKarekeКареке
Qarlı maralĶarly maralҚарлы маралKarlymaralКарлымарал
QayshılıĶajšylyҚайшылыKajshylyКайшылы
QazaqıĶazaķyҚазқыKazakyКазакы
QazayaqlıĶazaâķlyҚазаяқлыKazajaklyКазаяклы
QoldawlıĶoldaŭlyҚолдаўлыKoldaulyКолдаулы
Qosar-man'g'ıtĶosar-maņġytҚосар-маңғытKosar-mangytКосар-мангыт
Qostamg'alıĶostamġalyҚостамғалыKostamgalyКостамгалы
QuramaĶuramaҚурамаKuramaКурама
QuyınĶujynҚуйынKujynКуйын
QılqalıĶylķalyҚылқалыKylkalyКылкалы
QıpshaqĶypšaķҚыпшақKypshakКыпшак
QırqĶyrķҚырқKyrkКырк
QırqsadaqĶyrķsadaķҚырқсадақKyrksadakКырксадак
QıtayĶytajҚытайKytajКытай
QıyatĶyâtҚыятKyjatКыят
Qızıl ayaqĶyzyl ajaķҚызыл аяқKyzylajakКызылаяк
SabalaqSabalaķСабалақSabalakСабалак
SadaqSadaķСадақSadakСадак
SaltırSaltyrСалтырSaltyrСалтыр
SamatSamatСаматSamatСамат
San'murınSaņmurynСаңмурынSang-murynСанг-мурын
SaqıwSaķyŭСақыўSakiСаки
SartSartСартSartСарт
SarıSaryСарыSaryСары
SarıkempirSarykempirСарыкемпирSarykempirСарыкемпир
SarıtonSarytonСарытонSarytonСарытон
Sha'wjeliŠãŭželiШәўжелиShaujeliШаужели
SheriwshiŠeriŭšiШериўшиSheriushiШериуши
ShıljuwıtŠylžuŭytШылжуўытShulzhuitШулжуит
ShırjegenŠyržegenШыржегенShirzhegenШиржеген
Sho'mishlıŠômišlyШөмишлыShomishlyШомишлы
Shu'yitŠùjitШүйитShujitШуйит
ShunaqŠunaķШунақShunakШунак
SıyraqSyjraķСыирақSyjrakСыйрак
Tamg'alıTamġalyТамғалыTamgalyТамгалы
TaraqlıTaraķlyТарақлыTaraklyТараклы
TartıwlıTartyŭlyТартыўлыTartyulyТартыүлы
Taz balg'alıTaz balġalyТаз балғалыTazbalgalyТазбалгалы
Taz jallıqTaz žallyķТаз жаллықTaz zhallykТаз жаллык
TeliTeliТелиTeliТели
Temir xojaTemir hožaТемир хожаTemir-khozhaТемир-хожа
Teristamg'alıTeristamġalyТеристамғалыTeristamgalyТеристамгалы
TilewberdiTileŭberdiТилеўбердиTleuberdiТлеуберди
TiyekliTijekliТийеклиTijekliТийекли
Tog'ızToġyzТоғызTogyzТогыз
TolısTolysТолысTolysТолыс
Ton'moyınToņmojynТоңмойынTong-mojynТонг-мойын
Toq man'g'ıtToķ maņġytТоқ маңғытTok mangytТок маңғыт
ToqpolatToķpolatТоқполатTokpolatТокполат
ToqımbetToķumbetТоқымбетTokumbetТокумбет
Tu'rkmenTùrkmenТүркменTurkmenТуркмен
Tu'rkmen qaraTùrkmen ķaraТүркмен қараTurkmenkaraТуркменкара
Uyg'ırUjġyrУйғырUjgyrУйгыр
U'lken bo'rikÙlken bôrikҮлкен бөрикUlken borikУлкен борик
U'shbasÙšbasҮшбасUshbasУшбас
U'shtamg'alıÙštamġalyҮштамғалыUshtamgalyУштамгалы
Іrg'aqlıYrġaķlyЫрғақлыYrgaklyЫргаклы
YabıÂabyЯбыJabyЯбы



Qaraqalpaq (and Russian) Transliteration Systems

Qaraqalpaq
Cyrillic
    Romanized    
1995
  GOST System  
1971
  ISO-9 System  
1995
ALA-LC System
1997
Refer to Note:
А     аa aaa 
Ә     әa'  ãăNote 1
Б     бb bbb 
В     вv vvvNote 2
Г     гg ggg 
Ғ     ғg'  ġghNote 3
Д     дd ddd 
Е     еe eeeNote 4
Ё     ёyo joëëNote 5
Ж     жj zhžzhNote 6
З     зz zzz 
И     иi iii 
Й     йy jjĭ 
К     кk kkk 
Қ     қq  ķqNote 7
Л     лl lll 
М     мm mmm 
Н     нn nnn 
Ң     ңn'  ņngNote 8
О     оo ooo 
Ө     өo'  ôo with superdotNote 9
П     пp ppp 
Р     рr rrr 
С     сs sss 
Т     тt ttt 
У     уu uuu 
Ү     үu'  ùu with superdotNote 10
Ў     ўw  ŭwNote 11
Ф     фf fffNote 12
Х     хx khhkhNote 13
Ҳ     ҳh  h with cedillah with superdotNote 14
Ц     цts cctsNote 15
Ч     ч(sh) chčchNote 16
Ш     шsh shšsh 
Щ     щ(sh) shhŝshchNote 17
Ъ     ъ  """Note 18
Ы     ыı yyyNote 19
Ь     ь  '''Note 20
Э     эe ehèėNote 21
Ю     юyu juûiuNote 22
Я     яya jaâiaNote 23




We are grateful to our many Qaraqalpaq friends and readers for their past and continuing help in constructing this page. Any mistakes are of our own making. If you identify one we would be grateful if you could notify us.



Notes

1. ә is the second letter of the alphabet and is a version of a. It sounds like æ.

2. в does not occur in genuine Qaraqalpaq words.

3. ғ is a soft g, pronounced like a gutteral gh or occasionally ghe.

4. е is the Cyrillic yey. This sounds like the ye in yes when it is the first letter of a word or if it follows a vowel. When it follows a consonant it sounds like e. Thus есикқас is actually pronounced "yesikqas", whereas the e in керги sounds like a true e.

5. ё is e with a diacresis or umlaut. It is very rarely used.

6. ж is the Cyrillic zheh. It is normally transliterated as zh in Russian but Qaraqalpaqs always transliterate it as a j.

7. қ is the k with a descender, sometimes referred to as the Cyrillic qaf. Russians simply substitute the Cyrillic к but Qaraqalpaqs always transliterate it as q.

8. ң is h with a descender and is a nasal form of n. This letter does not exist in Russian Cyrillic so Russians normally use the equivalent of ng. Qaraqalpaqs tend to use n'.

9. ө is an o with a bar. It is pronounced like a German ö. Russians do not have this letter and substitute a normal o, while Qaraqalpaqs use o'.

10. ү is the straight Y and is actually a form of u. Pronounced like the German ü as in гүл or gu'l for flower.

11. ў is a y with a breve and sounds like w as in suwag'ar. Russians do not have this letter and substitute it with a y.

12. ф is f and does not occur in genuine Qaraqalpaq words.

13. х is x and is pronounced like a throaty h as in Khorezm, Khurasan or Khiva.

14. ҳ is x with a descender and is a less throaty h. Russians do not have this letter and substitute it with a normal х.

15. ц is the Cyrillic tseh and does not occur in genuine Qaraqalpaq words.

16. ч does not occur in genuine Qaraqalpaq words. They tend to use ш (sh) instead.

17. щ does not occur in genuine Qaraqalpaq words.

18. ъ is the symbol for the hard sound, usually transliterated as " in most systems but not allocated a symbol in Qaraqalpaq. The letter preceding this symbol is pronounced in a hard form.

19. ы is the Cyrillic yerih. It is another form of i, often transliterated as y and sounds like the ey in whiskey or the i in physics. It therefore sounds more like an e or ey than an i or y. Some Qaraqalpaqs write it as ı, a dotless i, to distinguish it from i and y. This is the only Qaraqalpaq letter which cannot be correctly Anglicized and typed on a standard keyboard without using 'insert symbol'.

20. ь is the soft sound, which softens the preceding letter.

21. э is the Cyrillic eh that looks like a backwards e. It sounds like the e in elephant or let.

22. ю is the Cyrillic yoo. It sounds like the u in yule.

23. я is the Cyrillic yah. It sounds like the ya in yak.







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